The next generation network or IPv6
Why change to IPv6
Every device connected to the internet need to have a IP address to be able to communicate.
Today on internet the main OSI layer 3 (network layer) protocol used is IPv4. The IPv4 addresses is 32-bit, in total that makes 4294967296 addresses. The main problem with IPv4 is that it is running out of addresses. By using NAT (Network Address Translation) the problem has been managed.
But the more internet grows, the more you need a long term solution. The long term solution is IPv6. The length of an IPv6 address is 128 bits, in total that makes 4,8 × 10^28 addresses, which is a gigantic amount. One other advantage over IPv4 is that IPv6 has the multicast specification. Multicast is the transmission of a packet to multiple destinations in a single send operation.
Configuring IPv6 address
There are three ways to set a IPv6 address:
-SLAAC(Stateless address autoconfiguration)
I will describe those three options in detail below:
You configure the IPv6 address, netmask, gateway and DNS servers manual. This method is preferable on servers and routers where the address needs to be consistent over time.
The client ask for a IPv6 address, the DHCPv6 server gives the client its IPv6 address, netmask and options like gateway, DNS servers, NTP servers etc. The DHCPv6 server know about which MAC address has what IP and for how long, which means DHCPv6 is statefull.
SLAAC(Stateless address autoconfiguration)
Every IPv6 enabled device has a link-local IPv6 address, this address is used to communicate on the local network. This link-local address is set if the client has IPv6 enabled. The link-local address always begin with FE80:: and is calculated on the client. When the client connects to a network physically, the client will use its link-local address as a source and send a router solicitation message to a specific multicast group on the local network. Every router on the local network will listen to this specific multicast group and answer the clients with a RA (Router Advertisement) message. In the RA there is a prefix specified, the client will use this prefix to calculate its own IPv6 address. The client will use the routers link-local address as the default gateway.
In the initial IPv6 specification there where no way of setting the DNS server using the SLAAC method. Instead there are a M-FLAG in the RA package specifying a DHCPv6 server that the client can connect to get options like DNS, NTP etc. Lately support for setting DNS server using the SLAAC method has been developed, but it is not supported by all operating systems.
IPv6 implementation at Dreamhack
At Dreamhack the client set its IPv6 address, prefix and gateway using the SLAAC method. In the RA there are a DHCPv6 server specified that the client use to set the DNS server.
1: Client connect to network.
2: Client calculate its own link-local address.
3: Client send out a router solicitation package on the specific multicast group using the link-local address as source.
4: Router listen on the specific multicast group and answer the client with a RA(Router Advertisement) containing the network prefix using its own link-local address as source.
5: The client calculates its own IPv6 address using the prefix in the RA.
6: The client sets the gateway to the routers link-local address.
7: Client ask the DHCPv6 server for the DNS server.
8: DHCPv6 server response with a list of DNS IPv6 servers.
8: Client is IPv6 ready 🙂
Problems with IPv6
Even if your computer, your ISP and you destination is fully IPv6 functional you can have problems with IPv6 because all ISP/routers etc where the IPv6 package travel from, source to destination needs to be IPv6 functional.
1: Client gets a IPv6 address.
2: Client now has dualstack IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.
3: Client asks the DNS server for the ip of www.youtube.com.
4: DNS server answer with the IPv6 address for www.youtube.com.
5: Client tries to communicate with the IPv6 address of www.youtube.com.
6: If IPv6 is not configured correctly form source to destination the request will timeout when it reaches the none IPv6 ready router/network.
7: Client fallbacks to IPv4.
8: Client is unhappy because request took a long time.